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G - J

Gaul - The region of modern-day France and parts of Belgium, western Germany, and northern Italy. Gaul was divided into three parts Transalpine Gaul, (beyond the alps) Cisalpine Gaul (on the Italian side of the Alps) and Narbonensis (the region of what is now southern France between Italy and Spain (Hispania).

Genius – Genius is the individual’s divine nature that is present in every person, place, or thing. Much like a guardian angel, the genius would follow each man from the hour of his birth until the day he died.

Gladiator - Gladiators were both professional and amateur fighters in ancient Rome. Contrary to a general misconception, gladiators seldom fought to the death.

Gladius - Roman double-edged short sword.

Gracchi - Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (plural Gracchi), were plebes who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute aristocratic landholdings among the urban poor and veterans. Both were assassinated by enemies of these reforms.

Grammaticus - a teacher in the second stage in the traditional education system.

Hannibal Barca - Leader of Carthaginians forces in 2nd Punic War.

Herodotus - Herodotus was a Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC. He is considered to be the “father of history.”

Hispania – Refers to the Roman provinces on the Iberian Peninsula. The two provinces were Hispania Citerior (Hispania Superior) which was the eastern part of the peninsula bordering Gaul and Hispania

Ulterior (Hispania Inferior) which was the southwestern part of the peninsula.

Hoplomachi - A Gladiator which is fully armored, and based on Greek hoplites.

Illyrian Wars – A series of wars with Illyria after the First Punic War.

Illyricum (Illyria) – The portion of the Balkan peninsula conquered by the Romans in 168 BC. Four client kingdoms were set up to govern the region but it was later taken over by Rome and became a province.

Imperium - A Latin word which translates roughly as 'power to command'. Imperium referred to the sovereignty of the state over the individual.

Impluvium - The sunken part of the atrium in a Roman house (domus), designed to carry away the rainwater coming through the compluvium (opening) of the roof.

talia – The Roman province that occupied the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon River.

Janiculum Hill – A hill west of the Tiber River and outside the boundary of the city of Rome. It was not considered one of the Seven Hills of Rome.

Jet - A type of lignite, a precursor to coal, considered to be a minor gemstone.

Julius Caesar – See Caesar character page.

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